The Swedish Institute functions as a link between Greek authorities and Swedish researchers. Research conducted by and at the Institute focuses primarily on archaeological fieldwork and publication of the results thereof. The Institute services Swedish researchers who wish to conduct research in Greece, as well as foreign researchers who wish to study finds from Swedish excavations in Greece.

Besides archaeological research, the Institute also organizes conferences and lectures on various topics related to Ancient Greece, and gives grants to postgraduate students at Swedish universities who wish to conduct studies in Greece.